Introduction to Calligraphy & Various Styles
Calligraphy is a form of visual art that is closely related to writing. This art style involves designing and then executing artistic lettering using a broad tip instrument, dip pen, brush, or any other suitable writing instrument. A contemporary calligraphic practice involves giving an aesthetic form to signs in an sensitive, symphonic, and adept way.
Modern calligraphy has graduated to a range of designs that may be functional inscriptions or ones of pure aesthetic value where the letters may not even be legible. Classical calligraphy is however distinctly different from typography or non-classical hand-lettering, even though a calligrapher may actually be proficient in all.
Calligraphy in the contemporary scenario finds application in formal event or wedding invites, typography or font design, genuine hand-lettered logo design, art for religion, formal announcements, graphic design or especially designed calligraphic art, cut stone engravings, and commemorative documents.
The fundamental tools used by a calligrapher include pen and brush. The pen may have a flat, round, or pointed nib. For some special styles multi-nibbed pens or steel brushes may also be employed. However, impressive works have been produced with the use of felt tip or ball point pens where the angled lines have been missing due to the limitations of the medium.
The styles of calligraphy differed from region to region. The Western Calligraphy had some special features like illumination of the first letter of a new chapter in the medieval times. A customarily decorative carpet page with ornate geometric patterns was known to precede the literature. There is a rhythm and regularity to the letters and a geometrical order of lines on the page. In Eastern Asia Calligraphy less restrained, faster and flowy cursive styles were employed. Here the movements made by the writing equipment were clearly visible. Indian calligraphy and its inscriptions were more stiff and angular in their form and the base material for inscriptions and writing varied greatly from smoke-treated palm leaves, to burnt clay, to copper and more. Islamic calligraphy is associated with the geometric Islamic art that adorns the walls and ceilings of mosques and literary material. Calligraphy for the Islamic followers is the ultimate art form, an art form that is connected to the spirits and the religion. Persian calligraphy is an entirely unique form where horizontal, vertical and diagonal nail shaped letters come together. It is this trait that gave it the name script of nails or cuneiform script.
Mayan calligraphy was in fact one of the most interesting ones as the form was in fact that of Mayan Hieroglyphs. Most of the archaeological sites in Mexico have hieroglyphs in their structures. Stone carved monuments or stele are in fact a common source of ancient Mayan Calligraphy.